The potential of Blockchain technology and the importance of standards

On 18 July 2023, the Tech for Good Institute acted as a convening partner to the Tech Policy Design (TPDC) of the Australian National University and the Centre for Communication Governance at the National Law University Delhi (CCG-NLUD) to bring together technology policy experts from across ASEAN to discuss the non-financial uses of blockchain technology and the role of technical standards in shaping this emerging technology.

The conversation built upon TPDC and CCG-NLUD’s report, Mapping the Blockchain Ecosystem in India and Australia, which explored stakeholder awareness and attitudes towards the technology and technical standards.

Blockchain, or distributed ledger technology, has the potential to transform many sectors across the economy and society.  While crypto-currency may be the most familiar application of the technology, blockchain technology has multiple use-cases, such as supply chain management, record management, credentialing, digital identity management, and in the creation of digital assets, such as music and art. Technical standards have an important role shaping the evolution of technology by aligning common expectations of security, safety, privacy and data protection while enabling interoperability to support cross-border and cross-sectoral growth. 

1. Blockchain can address unique challenges but it is not infallible.

There are noteworthy use cases of non-financial blockchain in Southeast Asia to tackle challenges and address needs unique to countries. Blockchain is relied on to safeguard highly sensitive information and in verifying authenticity of documents. For example, the Philippines is exploring turning to blockchain technology to address the issue of security in the context of internet voting during elections. Singapore also digitally authenticates and endorses health certificates through Notarise, easing downstream verification. The potential for blockchain in identity management can also empower marginalised and vulnerable communities. For example, an initiative to create a digital identity management system for the many displaced and undocumented Rohingyas strives to ensure sovereignty of the group’s own data and identity. While blockchain holds much promise, it is not an infallible nor self-sufficient solution. Roundtable participants raised the concerns of how the integrity of blockchain-enabled systems can be severely compromised if robust security measures such as regular audits, user education and constant vigilance are not implemented. In particular, building digital literacy of users was viewed as a cornerstone for meaningful usage of technology.

2. More engagements around blockchain and its technical standards are needed.

This lack of adoption poses difficulty in implementing appropriate and broadly-designed standards. In the Philippines, blockchain applications are still currently considered a “niche” area and not of focal concern within government bodies, with a predominant uptake of de facto standards as opposed to de jure (formal) standards. In Malaysia, the lack of awareness by stakeholders unfamiliar with newer technologies may defer imperative discussions on technical standards or result in standards that are ill-suited and irrelevant. To increase adoption, a combination of technological advancement, education, regulatory clarity and real-world use cases are needed. One participant suggested that the paucity of use cases could suggest that blockchain technology’s current use cases are unaligned with the region’s developmental needs and are not a priority for developing nations focused on inclusion.

3. Collaboration and partnerships across stakeholders and industries is essential in standards-making. 

A diversity of views is vital to understanding how users are impacted. Broad-based stakeholder engagement also encourages relevant and up-to-date insights about rapidly evolving technologies. Correspondingly, bridging differences in governance structures is fundamental to promote participation, so that standards are both responsive and adaptive to the needs of the market, but also backed by regulatory power. The ICC Digital Standards Initiative is an example of such an effort, which aims to harmonise approaches on standards by uniting industry associations, companies and standards developing organisations to identify gaps and remove inefficiencies to drive adoption. 

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Mouna Aouri

Programme Fellow

Mouna Aouri is an Institute Fellow at the Tech For Good Institute. As a social entrepreneur, impact investor, and engineer, her experience spans over two decades in the MENA region, South East Asia, and Japan. She is founder of Woomentum, a Singapore-based platform dedicated to supporting women entrepreneurs in APAC through skill development and access to growth capital through strategic collaborations with corporate entities, investors and government partners.

Dr Ming Tan

Founding Executive Director

Dr Ming Tan is founding Executive Director for the Tech for Good Institute, a non-profit founded to catalyse research and collaboration on social, economic and policy trends accelerated by the digital economy in Southeast Asia. She is concurrently a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Governance and Sustainability at the National University of Singapore and Advisor to the Founder of the COMO Group, a Singaporean portfolio of lifestyle companies operating in 15 countries worldwide.  Her research interests lie at the intersection of technology, business and society, including sustainability and innovation.


Ming was previously Managing Director of IPOS International, part of the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore, which supports Singapore’s future growth as a global innovation hub for intellectual property creation, commercialisation and management. Prior to joining the public sector, she was Head of Stewardship of the COMO Group and the founding Executive Director of COMO Foundation, a grantmaker focused on gender equity that has served over 47 million women and girls since 2003.


As a company director, she lends brand and strategic guidance to several companies within the COMO Group. Ming also serves as a Council Member of the Council for Board Diversity, on the boards of COMO Foundation and Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC), and on the Digital and Technology Advisory Panel for Esplanade–Theatres on the Bay, Singapore’s national performing arts centre.


In the non-profit, educational and government spheres, Ming is a director of COMO Foundation and Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) and chairs the Asia Advisory board for Swiss hospitality business and management school EHL. She also serves on  the Council for Board Diversity and the Digital and Technology Advisory Panel for Esplanade–Theatres on the Bay, Singapore’s national performing arts centre.


Ming was educated in Singapore, the United States, and England. She obtained her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Stanford University and her doctorate from Oxford.