Reaching New Heights: Insights from e-Conomy SEA 2023

Google, Temasek, and Bain's e-Conomy SEA 2023 Report sheds light on Southeast Asia's digital economy, forecasting a $100B revenue milestone.

By Ian Liu, Tech For Good Institute

The digital economy in Southeast Asia (SEA) continues to forge ahead amidst global economic challenges, as unveiled by the latest e-Conomy SEA 2023 report. Published by Google, Temasek, and Bain & Company, the comprehensive report forecasts SEA’s digital economy to surge, reaching a significant milestone of $100 billion in revenue this year. Notably, this remarkable growth represents a staggering 1.7x increase compared to the region’s Gross Merchandise Value (GMV).

For SEA’s digital economy to meet its trajectory of US $1 trillion by 2030, here are some key insights from the report for governments, investors, digital businesses, and nonprofits.

Resilience Amid Global Challenges

Southeast Asia has demonstrated resilience in the face of global economic headwinds, maintaining stable GDP growth, controlled inflation rates, and promising economic upswings, particularly in sectors like travel. The region’s ability to weather the storm is evident in stable economic indicators, showcasing encouraging increases in regional foreign direct investment inflow (+36%), exports (+32%), and travel demand (+40%). This resilience signifies not only a bounce-back but also a solid establishment of the region’s economic strength against global volatilities, especially in transport and travel.

Investment Realignment and Challenges

Whilst expected, the global-wide decline in private funding signals a significant shift within Southeast Asia’s investment landscape, nudging businesses towards self-sufficiency and heightened efficiency. This recalibration is a response to increased costs of capital and intensified competition, urging digital players to prioritise sustainable long-term growth. Additionally, challenges persist in meeting divestment targets and realising returns. Despite the challenging funding environment, dry powder is on the rise in SEA, reaching $15.7 billion in 2022. This underlines the opportunity and need for dependable exit strategies to garner investor confidence and continuity in the region’s investment ecosystem.

Monetisation and Sustainable Growth

The pivot towards monetisation within the digital realm showcases Southeast Asia’s conscientious efforts to strike a balance between revenue generation and overall market growth to achieve profitability targets. Efforts have borne fruit, with GMV expected to grow at 11% to $218 billion in 2023. Notably, sectors like e-commerce, travel, and transport demonstrate adaptability, maintaining growth trajectories while diversifying revenue streams. This strategic shift emphasises the maturing of the region’s digital landscape, placing a premium on profitability without sacrificing expansion or consumer engagement, marking a critical milestone towards sustainable growth.

Digital Financial Services and High-Value User Engagement

The rapid adoption of digital financial services (DFS) marks a significant inflection point. Digital payments, now constituting over 50% of the region’s transactions, reflect a shifting trend away from traditional payment methods. This is in line with the recent findings of the Tech for Good Institute (TFGI) that points out that trust in DFS providers is high in Southeast Asia. DFS, notably digital lending, emerges as a substantial revenue driver amid increasing competition between pure-play fintechs and traditional financial institutions. High-value users (HVUs), representing the top 30% of spenders, play a pivotal role, contributing over 70% of the digital economy spend. However, there’s untapped growth potential in expanding digital participation among non-HVUs.

Digital Inclusion and Regional Growth

While strides have been made in digital inclusion, the report underscores the widening digital economic divide, particularly outside metro areas. Bridging this gap necessitates collaborative efforts across stakeholders, including investors, digital businesses, non-profits, and governments. Addressing challenges of cost-efficient supply models to serve a broader set of consumers and enhancing their digital literacy emerge as a critical need in order to ensure meaningful participation in the digital economy – propelling regional growth. Addressing these gaps will not only democratise access but also drive holistic economic growth by ensuring no segment gets left behind in SEA’s digital revolution.


In summary, SEA’s favourable demographics, growing wealth, and an increasingly urbanised population create an environment conducive to sustained profitability. Yet to harness this potential and unlock the future, it is important to first acknowledge that the digital divide persists, with 150 million in Southeast Asia, especially the underserved, lacking access to digital technologies. The region must focus on broadening digital economy participation, nurturing nascent sectors (including 71 million micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises, or MSMEs, which account for some 97% of all businesses in the region), investing in physical infrastructure, and establishing supportive regional policies and regulations.

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Mouna Aouri

Programme Fellow

Mouna Aouri is an Institute Fellow at the Tech For Good Institute. As a social entrepreneur, impact investor, and engineer, her experience spans over two decades in the MENA region, South East Asia, and Japan. She is founder of Woomentum, a Singapore-based platform dedicated to supporting women entrepreneurs in APAC through skill development and access to growth capital through strategic collaborations with corporate entities, investors and government partners.

Dr Ming Tan

Founding Executive Director

Dr Ming Tan is founding Executive Director for the Tech for Good Institute, a non-profit founded to catalyse research and collaboration on social, economic and policy trends accelerated by the digital economy in Southeast Asia. She is concurrently a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Governance and Sustainability at the National University of Singapore and Advisor to the Founder of the COMO Group, a Singaporean portfolio of lifestyle companies operating in 15 countries worldwide.  Her research interests lie at the intersection of technology, business and society, including sustainability and innovation.


Ming was previously Managing Director of IPOS International, part of the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore, which supports Singapore’s future growth as a global innovation hub for intellectual property creation, commercialisation and management. Prior to joining the public sector, she was Head of Stewardship of the COMO Group and the founding Executive Director of COMO Foundation, a grantmaker focused on gender equity that has served over 47 million women and girls since 2003.


As a company director, she lends brand and strategic guidance to several companies within the COMO Group. Ming also serves as a Council Member of the Council for Board Diversity, on the boards of COMO Foundation and Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC), and on the Digital and Technology Advisory Panel for Esplanade–Theatres on the Bay, Singapore’s national performing arts centre.


In the non-profit, educational and government spheres, Ming is a director of COMO Foundation and Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) and chairs the Asia Advisory board for Swiss hospitality business and management school EHL. She also serves on  the Council for Board Diversity and the Digital and Technology Advisory Panel for Esplanade–Theatres on the Bay, Singapore’s national performing arts centre.


Ming was educated in Singapore, the United States, and England. She obtained her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Stanford University and her doctorate from Oxford.